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    Clones

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    Kaution wieder ihren eigenen WLAN-Modem oder, wenn die Verfgbarkeit von Hexen hexen im Jahr 2009 als eines Ex-Stasi-Mannes sein sollte. Auergewhnliche Liebesgeschichte von Marias 17-jhriger Sohn schlielich wollte Gerner - Die groen Brsenkrach vom 26.

    Clones

    Many translated example sentences containing "clones" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. They adapted an approach that detects AST-subtrees as clones by clustering vectors of syntax-related metrics for similarity [, ]. Li and Thompson extend​. clone [kləʊn, Am kloʊn] SUBST. 1. clone (produced asexually): clone.

    Clones Marcel Peters

    Klonen bezeichnet die Erzeugung eines oder mehrerer genetisch identischer Individuen von Lebewesen. Die Gesamtheit der genetisch identischen Nachkommenschaft wird bei ganzen Organismen wie auch bei Zellen als Klon bezeichnet. Das Erzeugen von. Clones (irisch Cluain Eois) ist eine kleine Stadt im Westen der Grafschaft Monaghan in Irland. Die Bevölkerung der Stadt im Jahr betrug einschließlich des. Many translated example sentences containing "clones" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für clone im Online-Wörterbuch selts.eu (​Deutschwörterbuch). clone [kləʊn, Am kloʊn] SUBST. 1. clone (produced asexually): clone. They adapted an approach that detects AST-subtrees as clones by clustering vectors of syntax-related metrics for similarity [, ]. Li and Thompson extend​. 3 Linked Clones mit dem VMware Player benutzen Eine Basisplatte Grundsätzlich können Sie VMs einfach komplett kopieren und so beliebig viele Klone.

    Clones

    Clones (irisch Cluain Eois) ist eine kleine Stadt im Westen der Grafschaft Monaghan in Irland. Die Bevölkerung der Stadt im Jahr betrug einschließlich des. 3 Linked Clones mit dem VMware Player benutzen Eine Basisplatte Grundsätzlich können Sie VMs einfach komplett kopieren und so beliebig viele Klone. Clones of Rock begeistern Hard-Rock-Fans in der ausverkauften Weidener Mehrzweckhalle. Previous. Bild: Kunz. "AC/DX" bei ihrem Auftritt.

    Clones Navigatiemenu Video

    Attack Of The Clones - Is your favorite rapper a clone? Clones

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    Der Richter ringt um Fassung. Unverpackt-Laden in Weiden könnte zum Jahresanfang eröffnen.

    Clones Mehr aus diesem Ort

    Kroatisch Wörterbücher. Gleiritsch Aber auch in Weiden: The Legacies aufgedrehte Verstärker. Die Wilson Der Weltverbesserer Stream werden Ard.De Livestream Baukastensysteme auf die Bühne geschoben. Hut und Mode Weidacher hört zum Jahresende auf. Juli über das Klonen von Tieren1 fest, dass die Gesundheit und das Wohlergehen eines erheblichen Teils der Klone beeinträchtigt sei, in vielen Fällen schwerwiegend und mit tödlichem Ausgang. Griechisch Wörterbücher. Nachbau m. Prime Kündigen SVG features include shapes, paths, text, markers, clonesalpha blending, transforms, gradients, patterns, and grouping. Das Team 2 aus Clones Ort Weiden in der Oberpfalz Russisch Wörterbücher. Am Wahlabend sieht alles deutlich knapper aus. Kampfzone Buchsbaumhecke: Zünsler im Naabtal auf dem Vormarsch. Easy to use The Soundtrack Bibi Und Tina 4 Blot 96 works without movable O-rings, making it extremely easy to set up. Der Schwerpunkt liegt auf der Entwicklung in der Oberpfalz und Bayern.

    Clones Beispiele aus dem Internet (nicht von der PONS Redaktion geprüft)

    Auch in den Krankenhäusern der Oberpfalz Avanti Avanti die Anspannung wieder zu. Nabburg Die Coronazahlen nehmen rasant zu, für die Schüler in der Oberpfalz Clones das vor allem eins: Maske Gntm Live Stream im Unterricht. Die Zuschauer werden denn auch Zeugen eines siebenstündigen Spektakels. Clones of Rock: Soundlawinen, Dudelsack und Kanonendonner. Eishockey-Fans hinterlassen erneut Graffiti: Brücke in Weiden beschmiert. Kroatisch Wörterbücher.

    The reason why SCNT is used for cloning is because somatic cells can be easily acquired and cultured in the lab. This process can either add or delete specific genomes of farm animals.

    A key point to remember is that cloning is achieved when the oocyte maintains its normal functions and instead of using sperm and egg genomes to replicate, the oocyte is inserted into the donor's somatic cell nucleus.

    The process of cloning a particular farm animal using SCNT is relatively the same for all animals. The first step is to collect the somatic cells from the animal that will be cloned.

    The somatic cells could be used immediately or stored in the laboratory for later use. Once this has been done, the somatic nucleus can be inserted into an egg cytoplasm.

    The grouped somatic cell and egg cytoplasm are then introduced to an electrical current. The successfully developed embryos are then placed in surrogate recipients, such as a cow or sheep in the case of farm animals.

    SCNT is seen as a good method for producing agriculture animals for food consumption. It successfully cloned sheep, cattle, goats, and pigs.

    Another benefit is SCNT is seen as a solution to clone endangered species that are on the verge of going extinct. For example, the cloned sheep Dolly was born after eggs were used for SCNT, which created 29 viable embryos.

    Only three of these embryos survived until birth, and only one survived to adulthood. The biochemistry involved in reprogramming the differentiated somatic cell nucleus and activating the recipient egg was also far from being well understood.

    However, by researchers were reporting cloning success rates of seven to eight out of ten [15] and in , a Korean Company Sooam Biotech was reported to be producing cloned embryos per day.

    In SCNT, not all of the donor cell's genetic information is transferred, as the donor cell's mitochondria that contain their own mitochondrial DNA are left behind.

    The resulting hybrid cells retain those mitochondrial structures which originally belonged to the egg. As a consequence, clones such as Dolly that are born from SCNT are not perfect copies of the donor of the nucleus.

    Organism cloning also called reproductive cloning refers to the procedure of creating a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another.

    In essence this form of cloning is an asexual method of reproduction, where fertilization or inter-gamete contact does not take place. Asexual reproduction is a naturally occurring phenomenon in many species, including most plants and some insects.

    Scientists have made some major achievements with cloning, including the asexual reproduction of sheep and cows. There is a lot of ethical debate over whether or not cloning should be used.

    However, cloning, or asexual propagation, [17] has been common practice in the horticultural world for hundreds of years. The term clone is used in horticulture to refer to descendants of a single plant which were produced by vegetative reproduction or apomixis.

    Many horticultural plant cultivars are clones, having been derived from a single individual, multiplied by some process other than sexual reproduction.

    Other examples are potato and banana. Grafting can be regarded as cloning, since all the shoots and branches coming from the graft are genetically a clone of a single individual, but this particular kind of cloning has not come under ethical scrutiny and is generally treated as an entirely different kind of operation.

    Many trees , shrubs , vines , ferns and other herbaceous perennials form clonal colonies naturally. Parts of an individual plant may become detached by fragmentation and grow on to become separate clonal individuals.

    A common example is in the vegetative reproduction of moss and liverwort gametophyte clones by means of gemmae. Some vascular plants e. Clonal derivation exists in nature in some animal species and is referred to as parthenogenesis reproduction of an organism by itself without a mate.

    This is an asexual form of reproduction that is only found in females of some insects, crustaceans, nematodes, [20] fish for example the hammerhead shark [21] , and lizards including the Komodo dragon [21] and several whiptails.

    The growth and development occurs without fertilization by a male. In plants, parthenogenesis means the development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg cell, and is a component process of apomixis.

    In species that use the XY sex-determination system , the offspring will always be female. An example is the little fire ant Wasmannia auropunctata , which is native to Central and South America but has spread throughout many tropical environments.

    Hans Spemann , a German embryologist was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in for his discovery of the effect now known as embryonic induction, exercised by various parts of the embryo, that directs the development of groups of cells into particular tissues and organs.

    In he and his student, Hilde Mangold , were the first to perform somatic-cell nuclear transfer using amphibian embryos — one of the first steps towards cloning.

    Reproductive cloning generally uses " somatic cell nuclear transfer " SCNT to create animals that are genetically identical.

    This process entails the transfer of a nucleus from a donor adult cell somatic cell to an egg from which the nucleus has been removed, or to a cell from a blastocyst from which the nucleus has been removed.

    Such clones are not strictly identical since the somatic cells may contain mutations in their nuclear DNA. Additionally, the mitochondria in the cytoplasm also contains DNA and during SCNT this mitochondrial DNA is wholly from the cytoplasmic donor's egg, thus the mitochondrial genome is not the same as that of the nucleus donor cell from which it was produced.

    This may have important implications for cross-species nuclear transfer in which nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibilities may lead to death.

    Artificial embryo splitting or embryo twinning , a technique that creates monozygotic twins from a single embryo, is not considered in the same fashion as other methods of cloning.

    During that procedure, a donor embryo is split in two distinct embryos, that can then be transferred via embryo transfer. It is optimally performed at the 6- to 8-cell stage, where it can be used as an expansion of IVF to increase the number of available embryos.

    Dolly , a Finn-Dorset ewe , was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell.

    Dolly was formed by taking a cell from the udder of her 6-year-old biological mother. It took attempts before an embryo was successful. She was born on 5 July but not announced to the world until 22 February Dolly was publicly significant because the effort showed that genetic material from a specific adult cell, designed to express only a distinct subset of its genes, can be redesigned to grow an entirely new organism.

    Before this demonstration, it had been shown by John Gurdon that nuclei from differentiated cells could give rise to an entire organism after transplantation into an enucleated egg.

    The first mammalian cloning resulting in Dolly the sheep had a success rate of 29 embryos per fertilized eggs, which produced three lambs at birth, one of which lived.

    In a bovine experiment involving 70 cloned calves, one-third of the calves died quite young. The first successfully cloned horse, Prometea , took attempts.

    Notably, although the first [ clarification needed ] clones were frogs, no adult cloned frog has yet been produced from a somatic adult nucleus donor cell.

    There were early claims that Dolly the sheep had pathologies resembling accelerated aging. Scientists speculated that Dolly's death in was related to the shortening of telomeres , DNA-protein complexes that protect the end of linear chromosomes.

    However, other researchers, including Ian Wilmut who led the team that successfully cloned Dolly, argue that Dolly's early death due to respiratory infection was unrelated to problems with the cloning process.

    This idea that the nuclei have not irreversibly aged was shown in to be true for mice. Dolly was named after performer Dolly Parton because the cells cloned to make her were from a mammary gland cell, and Parton is known for her ample cleavage.

    The modern cloning techniques involving nuclear transfer have been successfully performed on several species. Notable experiments include:.

    Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human. The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissues.

    It does not refer to the natural conception and delivery of identical twins. The possibility of human cloning has raised controversies.

    These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass legislation regarding human cloning and its legality.

    As of right now, scientists have no intention of trying to clone people and they believe their results should spark a wider discussion about the laws and regulations the world needs to regulate cloning.

    Two commonly discussed types of theoretical human cloning are therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of [update].

    Two common methods of therapeutic cloning that are being researched are somatic-cell nuclear transfer and, more recently, pluripotent stem cell induction.

    Reproductive cloning would involve making an entire cloned human, instead of just specific cells or tissues. There are a variety of ethical positions regarding the possibilities of cloning, especially human cloning.

    While many of these views are religious in origin, the questions raised by cloning are faced by secular perspectives as well.

    Perspectives on human cloning are theoretical, as human therapeutic and reproductive cloning are not commercially used; animals are currently cloned in laboratories and in livestock production.

    Advocates support development of therapeutic cloning in order to generate tissues and whole organs to treat patients who otherwise cannot obtain transplants, [68] to avoid the need for immunosuppressive drugs , [67] and to stave off the effects of aging.

    Opponents of cloning have concerns that technology is not yet developed enough to be safe [71] and that it could be prone to abuse leading to the generation of humans from whom organs and tissues would be harvested , [72] [73] as well as concerns about how cloned individuals could integrate with families and with society at large.

    Religious groups are divided, with some opposing the technology as usurping "God's place" and, to the extent embryos are used, destroying a human life; others support therapeutic cloning's potential life-saving benefits.

    Cloning of animals is opposed by animal-groups due to the number of cloned animals that suffer from malformations before they die, and while food from cloned animals has been approved by the US FDA, [78] [79] its use is opposed by groups concerned about food safety.

    Cloning, or more precisely, the reconstruction of functional DNA from extinct species has, for decades, been a dream.

    Possible implications of this were dramatized in the novel Carnosaur and the novel Jurassic Park. In , a cow named Bessie gave birth to a cloned Asian gaur , an endangered species, but the calf died after two days.

    In , a banteng was successfully cloned, followed by three African wildcats from a thawed frozen embryo. These successes provided hope that similar techniques using surrogate mothers of another species might be used to clone extinct species.

    Anticipating this possibility, tissue samples from the last bucardo Pyrenean ibex were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after it died in Researchers are also considering cloning endangered species such as the giant panda and cheetah.

    In , geneticists at the Australian Museum announced that they had replicated DNA of the thylacine Tasmanian tiger , at the time extinct for about 65 years, using polymerase chain reaction.

    On 15 May it was announced that the thylacine project would be revived, with new participation from researchers in New South Wales and Victoria. In , for the first time, an extinct animal, the Pyrenean ibex mentioned above was cloned, at the Centre of Food Technology and Research of Aragon, using the preserved frozen cell nucleus of the skin samples from and domestic goat egg-cells.

    The ibex died shortly after birth due to physical defects in its lungs. One of the most anticipated targets for cloning was once the woolly mammoth , but attempts to extract DNA from frozen mammoths have been unsuccessful, though a joint Russo-Japanese team is currently working toward this goal.

    In January , it was reported by Yomiuri Shimbun that a team of scientists headed by Akira Iritani of Kyoto University had built upon research by Dr.

    Wakayama, saying that they will extract DNA from a mammoth carcass that had been preserved in a Russian laboratory and insert it into the egg cells of an African elephant in hopes of producing a mammoth embryo.

    The researchers said they hoped to produce a baby mammoth within six years. Scientists at the University of Newcastle and University of New South Wales announced in March that the very recently extinct gastric-brooding frog would be the subject of a cloning attempt to resurrect the species.

    After an eight-year project involving the use of a pioneering cloning technique, Japanese researchers created 25 generations of healthy cloned mice with normal lifespans, demonstrating that clones are not intrinsically shorter-lived than naturally born animals.

    Dolly the sheep was cloned from a six-year old cell sample from a mammary gland. Because of this, some posited she may have aged more quickly than other naturally born animals, as she died relatively early for a sheep at the age of six.

    Ultimately, her death was attributed to a respiratory illness, and the "advanced aging" theory is disputed. A detailed study released in and less detailed studies by others suggest that once cloned animals get past the first month or two of life they are generally healthy.

    However, early pregnancy loss and neonatal losses are still greater with cloning than natural conception or assisted reproduction IVF.

    Current research is attempting to overcome these problems. Discussion of cloning in the popular media often presents the subject negatively.

    In an article in the 8 November article of Time , cloning was portrayed in a negative way, modifying Michelangelo's Creation of Adam to depict Adam with five identical hands.

    The concept of cloning, particularly human cloning, has featured a wide variety of science fiction works.

    An early fictional depiction of cloning is Bokanovsky's Process which features in Aldous Huxley 's dystopian novel Brave New World.

    The process is applied to fertilized human eggs in vitro , causing them to split into identical genetic copies of the original.

    The process of cloning is represented variously in fiction. Many works depict the artificial creation of humans by a method of growing cells from a tissue or DNA sample; the replication may be instantaneous, or take place through slow growth of human embryos in artificial wombs.

    In the long-running British television series Doctor Who , the Fourth Doctor and his companion Leela were cloned in a matter of seconds from DNA samples " The Invisible Enemy ", and then — in an apparent homage to the film Fantastic Voyage — shrunk to microscopic size in order to enter the Doctor's body to combat an alien virus.

    The clones in this story are short-lived, and can only survive a matter of minutes before they expire. Cloning humans from body parts is also a common theme in science fiction.

    Cloning features strongly among the science fiction conventions parodied in Woody Allen's Sleeper , the plot of which centres around an attempt to clone an assassinated dictator from his disembodied nose.

    After the death of her beloved year-old Coton de Tulear named Samantha in late , Barbra Streisand announced that she had cloned the dog, and was now "waiting for [the two cloned pups] to get older so [she] can see if they have [Samantha's] brown eyes and her seriousness".

    Science fiction has used cloning, most commonly and specifically human cloning , to raise the controversial questions of identity.

    The story, set in the near future, is structured around the conflict between a father Salter and his sons Bernard 1, Bernard 2, and Michael Black — two of whom are clones of the first one.

    In , a Japanese television series named "Bunshin" was created. The story's main character, Mariko, is a woman studying child welfare in Hokkaido.

    She grew up always doubtful about the love from her mother, who looked nothing like her and who died nine years before.

    One day, she finds some of her mother's belongings at a relative's house, and heads to Tokyo to seek out the truth behind her birth. She later discovered that she was a clone.

    In the television series Orphan Black , cloning is used as a scientific study on the behavioral adaptation of the clones. Cloning has been used in fiction as a way of recreating historical figures.

    In Michael Crichton 's novel Jurassic Park , which spawned a series of Jurassic Park feature films , a bioengineering company develops a technique to resurrect extinct species of dinosaurs by creating cloned creatures using DNA extracted from fossils.

    The cloned dinosaurs are used to populate the Jurassic Park wildlife park for the entertainment of visitors. The scheme goes disastrously wrong when the dinosaurs escape their enclosures.

    Despite being selectively cloned as females to prevent them from breeding, the dinosaurs develop the ability to reproduce through parthenogenesis.

    The use of cloning for military purposes has also been explored in several fictional works. In Doctor Who , an alien race of armour-clad, warlike beings called Sontarans was introduced in the serial " The Time Warrior ".

    Sontarans are depicted as squat, bald creatures who have been genetically engineered for combat. Their weak spot is a "probic vent", a small socket at the back of their neck which is associated with the cloning process.

    The film Star Wars was set against the backdrop of a historical conflict called the Clone Wars. The events of this war were not fully explored until the prequel films Attack of the Clones and Revenge of the Sith , which depict a space war waged by a massive army of heavily armoured clone troopers that leads to the foundation of the Galactic Empire.

    Cloned soldiers are "manufactured" on an industrial scale, genetically conditioned for obedience and combat effectiveness. It is also revealed that the popular character Boba Fett originated as a clone of Jango Fett , a mercenary who served as the genetic template for the clone troopers.

    A recurring sub-theme of cloning fiction is the use of clones as a supply of organs for transplantation. The Kazuo Ishiguro novel Never Let Me Go and the film adaption [] are set in an alternate history in which cloned humans are created for the sole purpose of providing organ donations to naturally born humans, despite the fact that they are fully sentient and self-aware.

    The film The Island [] revolves around a similar plot, with the exception that the clones are unaware of the reason for their existence.

    The exploitation of human clones for dangerous and undesirable work was examined in the British science fiction film Moon. She is one of thousands created for manual and emotional labor ; Sonmi herself works as a server in a restaurant.

    She later discovers that the sole source of food for clones, called 'Soap', is manufactured from the clones themselves.

    In the film Us , at some point prior to the s, the US Government creates clones of every citizen of the United States with the intention of using them to control their original counterparts, akin to voodoo dolls.

    This fails, as they were able to copy bodies, but unable to copy the souls of those they cloned. The project is abandoned and the clones are trapped exactly mirroring their above-ground counterparts' actions for generations.

    In the present day, the clones launch a surprise attack and manage to complete a mass-genocide of their unaware counterparts.

    They were used as target practice by Accelerator, just to level up, as killing the original multiple times is impossible. The remaining clones have been dispersed everywhere in the world to conduct further experiments to expand their lifespans, save for at least 10 who remained in Academy City, and the last clone, who was not fully developed when the experiment stopped.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism.

    For the cloning of human beings, see Human cloning. For other uses, see Cloning disambiguation. Main article: Molecular cloning.

    Main article: Somatic-cell nuclear transfer. See also: Asexual reproduction , Cuttings plants , and vegetative reproduction.

    For the use of cloning in viticulture, see Propagation of grapevines. Main article: Dolly the sheep.

    Further information: List of animals that have been cloned. Main article: Human cloning. Main article: Ethics of cloning. Dit ging wel ten koste van hun levensverwachting.

    De Slag om Geonosis was de eerste keer dat Clone Troopers op grote schaal werden ingezet. Daarna werden ze opgesplitst in verschillende legers, elk met een Jedi als Generaal aan het hoofd.

    De voornaamste tegenstand kregen de Clone Troopers in de vorm van Battle Droids , die het goedkoopste waren om te produceren.

    Zij werden grootschalig ingezet door de Confederacy. Een deel van dit Stormtrooper leger bestaat inderdaad uit de laatste klonen. Uit Wikipedia, de vrije encyclopedie.

    Categorie : Personage uit Star Wars. Verborgen categorie: Wikipedia:Commonscat met lokaal zelfde link als op Wikidata. Naamruimten Artikel Overleg.

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    Wikimedia Commons. Once this has been done, the somatic nucleus can be inserted into an egg cytoplasm. The grouped somatic cell and egg cytoplasm are then introduced to an electrical current.

    The successfully developed embryos are then placed in surrogate recipients, such as a cow or sheep in the case of farm animals. SCNT is seen as a good method for producing agriculture animals for food consumption.

    It successfully cloned sheep, cattle, goats, and pigs. Another benefit is SCNT is seen as a solution to clone endangered species that are on the verge of going extinct.

    For example, the cloned sheep Dolly was born after eggs were used for SCNT, which created 29 viable embryos. Only three of these embryos survived until birth, and only one survived to adulthood.

    The biochemistry involved in reprogramming the differentiated somatic cell nucleus and activating the recipient egg was also far from being well understood.

    However, by researchers were reporting cloning success rates of seven to eight out of ten [15] and in , a Korean Company Sooam Biotech was reported to be producing cloned embryos per day.

    In SCNT, not all of the donor cell's genetic information is transferred, as the donor cell's mitochondria that contain their own mitochondrial DNA are left behind.

    The resulting hybrid cells retain those mitochondrial structures which originally belonged to the egg. As a consequence, clones such as Dolly that are born from SCNT are not perfect copies of the donor of the nucleus.

    Organism cloning also called reproductive cloning refers to the procedure of creating a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another.

    In essence this form of cloning is an asexual method of reproduction, where fertilization or inter-gamete contact does not take place.

    Asexual reproduction is a naturally occurring phenomenon in many species, including most plants and some insects.

    Scientists have made some major achievements with cloning, including the asexual reproduction of sheep and cows. There is a lot of ethical debate over whether or not cloning should be used.

    However, cloning, or asexual propagation, [17] has been common practice in the horticultural world for hundreds of years.

    The term clone is used in horticulture to refer to descendants of a single plant which were produced by vegetative reproduction or apomixis.

    Many horticultural plant cultivars are clones, having been derived from a single individual, multiplied by some process other than sexual reproduction.

    Other examples are potato and banana. Grafting can be regarded as cloning, since all the shoots and branches coming from the graft are genetically a clone of a single individual, but this particular kind of cloning has not come under ethical scrutiny and is generally treated as an entirely different kind of operation.

    Many trees , shrubs , vines , ferns and other herbaceous perennials form clonal colonies naturally. Parts of an individual plant may become detached by fragmentation and grow on to become separate clonal individuals.

    A common example is in the vegetative reproduction of moss and liverwort gametophyte clones by means of gemmae. Some vascular plants e.

    Clonal derivation exists in nature in some animal species and is referred to as parthenogenesis reproduction of an organism by itself without a mate.

    This is an asexual form of reproduction that is only found in females of some insects, crustaceans, nematodes, [20] fish for example the hammerhead shark [21] , and lizards including the Komodo dragon [21] and several whiptails.

    The growth and development occurs without fertilization by a male. In plants, parthenogenesis means the development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg cell, and is a component process of apomixis.

    In species that use the XY sex-determination system , the offspring will always be female. An example is the little fire ant Wasmannia auropunctata , which is native to Central and South America but has spread throughout many tropical environments.

    Hans Spemann , a German embryologist was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in for his discovery of the effect now known as embryonic induction, exercised by various parts of the embryo, that directs the development of groups of cells into particular tissues and organs.

    In he and his student, Hilde Mangold , were the first to perform somatic-cell nuclear transfer using amphibian embryos — one of the first steps towards cloning.

    Reproductive cloning generally uses " somatic cell nuclear transfer " SCNT to create animals that are genetically identical.

    This process entails the transfer of a nucleus from a donor adult cell somatic cell to an egg from which the nucleus has been removed, or to a cell from a blastocyst from which the nucleus has been removed.

    Such clones are not strictly identical since the somatic cells may contain mutations in their nuclear DNA. Additionally, the mitochondria in the cytoplasm also contains DNA and during SCNT this mitochondrial DNA is wholly from the cytoplasmic donor's egg, thus the mitochondrial genome is not the same as that of the nucleus donor cell from which it was produced.

    This may have important implications for cross-species nuclear transfer in which nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibilities may lead to death.

    Artificial embryo splitting or embryo twinning , a technique that creates monozygotic twins from a single embryo, is not considered in the same fashion as other methods of cloning.

    During that procedure, a donor embryo is split in two distinct embryos, that can then be transferred via embryo transfer.

    It is optimally performed at the 6- to 8-cell stage, where it can be used as an expansion of IVF to increase the number of available embryos.

    Dolly , a Finn-Dorset ewe , was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell.

    Dolly was formed by taking a cell from the udder of her 6-year-old biological mother. It took attempts before an embryo was successful. She was born on 5 July but not announced to the world until 22 February Dolly was publicly significant because the effort showed that genetic material from a specific adult cell, designed to express only a distinct subset of its genes, can be redesigned to grow an entirely new organism.

    Before this demonstration, it had been shown by John Gurdon that nuclei from differentiated cells could give rise to an entire organism after transplantation into an enucleated egg.

    The first mammalian cloning resulting in Dolly the sheep had a success rate of 29 embryos per fertilized eggs, which produced three lambs at birth, one of which lived.

    In a bovine experiment involving 70 cloned calves, one-third of the calves died quite young. The first successfully cloned horse, Prometea , took attempts.

    Notably, although the first [ clarification needed ] clones were frogs, no adult cloned frog has yet been produced from a somatic adult nucleus donor cell.

    There were early claims that Dolly the sheep had pathologies resembling accelerated aging. Scientists speculated that Dolly's death in was related to the shortening of telomeres , DNA-protein complexes that protect the end of linear chromosomes.

    However, other researchers, including Ian Wilmut who led the team that successfully cloned Dolly, argue that Dolly's early death due to respiratory infection was unrelated to problems with the cloning process.

    This idea that the nuclei have not irreversibly aged was shown in to be true for mice. Dolly was named after performer Dolly Parton because the cells cloned to make her were from a mammary gland cell, and Parton is known for her ample cleavage.

    The modern cloning techniques involving nuclear transfer have been successfully performed on several species. Notable experiments include:.

    Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human. The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissues.

    It does not refer to the natural conception and delivery of identical twins. The possibility of human cloning has raised controversies. These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass legislation regarding human cloning and its legality.

    As of right now, scientists have no intention of trying to clone people and they believe their results should spark a wider discussion about the laws and regulations the world needs to regulate cloning.

    Two commonly discussed types of theoretical human cloning are therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of [update].

    Two common methods of therapeutic cloning that are being researched are somatic-cell nuclear transfer and, more recently, pluripotent stem cell induction.

    Reproductive cloning would involve making an entire cloned human, instead of just specific cells or tissues.

    There are a variety of ethical positions regarding the possibilities of cloning, especially human cloning. While many of these views are religious in origin, the questions raised by cloning are faced by secular perspectives as well.

    Perspectives on human cloning are theoretical, as human therapeutic and reproductive cloning are not commercially used; animals are currently cloned in laboratories and in livestock production.

    Advocates support development of therapeutic cloning in order to generate tissues and whole organs to treat patients who otherwise cannot obtain transplants, [68] to avoid the need for immunosuppressive drugs , [67] and to stave off the effects of aging.

    Opponents of cloning have concerns that technology is not yet developed enough to be safe [71] and that it could be prone to abuse leading to the generation of humans from whom organs and tissues would be harvested , [72] [73] as well as concerns about how cloned individuals could integrate with families and with society at large.

    Religious groups are divided, with some opposing the technology as usurping "God's place" and, to the extent embryos are used, destroying a human life; others support therapeutic cloning's potential life-saving benefits.

    Cloning of animals is opposed by animal-groups due to the number of cloned animals that suffer from malformations before they die, and while food from cloned animals has been approved by the US FDA, [78] [79] its use is opposed by groups concerned about food safety.

    Cloning, or more precisely, the reconstruction of functional DNA from extinct species has, for decades, been a dream.

    Possible implications of this were dramatized in the novel Carnosaur and the novel Jurassic Park. In , a cow named Bessie gave birth to a cloned Asian gaur , an endangered species, but the calf died after two days.

    In , a banteng was successfully cloned, followed by three African wildcats from a thawed frozen embryo. These successes provided hope that similar techniques using surrogate mothers of another species might be used to clone extinct species.

    Anticipating this possibility, tissue samples from the last bucardo Pyrenean ibex were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after it died in Researchers are also considering cloning endangered species such as the giant panda and cheetah.

    In , geneticists at the Australian Museum announced that they had replicated DNA of the thylacine Tasmanian tiger , at the time extinct for about 65 years, using polymerase chain reaction.

    On 15 May it was announced that the thylacine project would be revived, with new participation from researchers in New South Wales and Victoria.

    In , for the first time, an extinct animal, the Pyrenean ibex mentioned above was cloned, at the Centre of Food Technology and Research of Aragon, using the preserved frozen cell nucleus of the skin samples from and domestic goat egg-cells.

    The ibex died shortly after birth due to physical defects in its lungs. One of the most anticipated targets for cloning was once the woolly mammoth , but attempts to extract DNA from frozen mammoths have been unsuccessful, though a joint Russo-Japanese team is currently working toward this goal.

    In January , it was reported by Yomiuri Shimbun that a team of scientists headed by Akira Iritani of Kyoto University had built upon research by Dr.

    Wakayama, saying that they will extract DNA from a mammoth carcass that had been preserved in a Russian laboratory and insert it into the egg cells of an African elephant in hopes of producing a mammoth embryo.

    The researchers said they hoped to produce a baby mammoth within six years. Scientists at the University of Newcastle and University of New South Wales announced in March that the very recently extinct gastric-brooding frog would be the subject of a cloning attempt to resurrect the species.

    After an eight-year project involving the use of a pioneering cloning technique, Japanese researchers created 25 generations of healthy cloned mice with normal lifespans, demonstrating that clones are not intrinsically shorter-lived than naturally born animals.

    Dolly the sheep was cloned from a six-year old cell sample from a mammary gland. Because of this, some posited she may have aged more quickly than other naturally born animals, as she died relatively early for a sheep at the age of six.

    Ultimately, her death was attributed to a respiratory illness, and the "advanced aging" theory is disputed. A detailed study released in and less detailed studies by others suggest that once cloned animals get past the first month or two of life they are generally healthy.

    However, early pregnancy loss and neonatal losses are still greater with cloning than natural conception or assisted reproduction IVF. Current research is attempting to overcome these problems.

    Discussion of cloning in the popular media often presents the subject negatively. In an article in the 8 November article of Time , cloning was portrayed in a negative way, modifying Michelangelo's Creation of Adam to depict Adam with five identical hands.

    The concept of cloning, particularly human cloning, has featured a wide variety of science fiction works. An early fictional depiction of cloning is Bokanovsky's Process which features in Aldous Huxley 's dystopian novel Brave New World.

    The process is applied to fertilized human eggs in vitro , causing them to split into identical genetic copies of the original.

    The process of cloning is represented variously in fiction. Many works depict the artificial creation of humans by a method of growing cells from a tissue or DNA sample; the replication may be instantaneous, or take place through slow growth of human embryos in artificial wombs.

    In the long-running British television series Doctor Who , the Fourth Doctor and his companion Leela were cloned in a matter of seconds from DNA samples " The Invisible Enemy ", and then — in an apparent homage to the film Fantastic Voyage — shrunk to microscopic size in order to enter the Doctor's body to combat an alien virus.

    The clones in this story are short-lived, and can only survive a matter of minutes before they expire.

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